Scientific evaluations are forms of applied social research for the systematic generation of recommendations for decisions and actions for quality assurance and quality development, which are intended to help solve practical, meta-scientific, social, and political problems.
For science-based evaluations, it is essential to know exactly what is being evaluated, for what purpose, according to which criteria, by whom and how. This means that the objects of the evaluation and the evaluation goals must be clarified, and the evaluation process must meet certain quality criteria (e.g., use empirical (social science) research methods to obtain information; assessments by experts according to explicitly defined, intersubjectively justifiable criteria).
The process of implementing the evaluation recommendations is called follow-up. Formative evaluations are evaluations that are not limited to the summary determination of past achievements but include assessments and recommendations for future improvement.
In the present context, formative evaluations are evaluations of digital pedagogical and organisational practice and related learning and teaching theories, policies, and visions.