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Ontologies integrate a set of domain-based concepts and categories to describe an object’s properties. They are used to capture the relevant objects and properties (relationships and attributes) that can be referred to by people or systems during the management and execution of construction or renovation projects. This includes physical and spatial entities, temporal regions, information contents, agents, activities, and groupings of objects.

There are several methods to describe formal specifications of knowledge representation (taxonomies, thesauri, topic maps, etc.); nevertheless, ontologies allow for expressing relationships and enable users to link multiple concepts. Teachers can work with ontology-driven approaches to search for or filter/present/discuss different overviews of multi-layered structures, e.g., materials that address multicultural and multilinguistic issues.