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Optimize individual choice and autonomy



Offering learners choices can develop self-determination, pride in accomplishment, and increase the degree to which they feel connected to their learning.
The right kind of choice can accelerate fast learners’ studies or support slower learners.

Choices can be offered routinely or based on the student’s competence or knowledge tested by e.g. multiple choice tests.

The right kind of choice and level of independence must be optimized to ensure engagement.

Provide learners with as much discretion and autonomy as possible by providing choices in such things as:
– The level of perceived challenge
– The type of rewards or recognition available
– The context or content used for practicing and assessing skills
– The tools used for information gathering or production
– The color, design, or graphics of layouts, etc.
– The sequence or timing for completion of subcomponents of tasks
– Allow learners to participate in the design of online learning activities and academic tasks
– Involve learners, where and whenever possible, in setting their own personal academic and behavioral goals.

CAST (2018). Universal Design for Learning Guidelines version 2.2. Retrieved from